Musk Deer – Vanishing of the Exquisite Scent!

This paper discusses the threatened condition of musk deer with focus on taxonomy of musk deer, distribution of musk deer, production of musk, uses of musk both as a perfume and medicine, trade of musk, and conservation status of musk deer. The author of this paper aims to emphasize the exquisiteness of the musk secretion both as a perfume and medicine, and hence, the need to save the musk deer from getting extinct.


The musk deer is best acknowledged for its extraordinarily pleasant perfumed secretion known as the musk. This secretion ranks among the most valuable natural products in the world both for its fragrance and medicinal virtues, and has played the most important role in the decline of the population of musk deer on this planet. The rampant hunting of musk deer for international trade of musk products has resulted in the vanishing of the exquisite scent at an accelerated rate.


Taxonomy / Classification of Musk Deer

Musk deer are deer-like animals belonging to the family Moschidae of the order Artiodactyla under the class Mammalia. The following species of musk deer (genus Moschus) have been recognized, viz. –


Moschus moschiferus –
It is also known as Siberian musk deer or Taiga musk deer.

M. berezovskii – It is also known as Forest musk deer, Chinese Forest musk deer, South China Forest musk deer, or Dwarf musk deer.

M. chrysogaster – It is also known as Alpine musk deer.

M. leucogaster – It is also recognized by the name of Himalayan musk deer.

M. cupreus – It is also recognized by the name of Kashmir musk deer.

M. anhuiensis – Moschus anhuiensis is also known as Anhui musk deer.

M. fuscus – Moschus fuscus is also recognized by the name of Black musk deer or Dusky musk deer.


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Photoelectric Effect – Particle Nature of Light

Modern physics fully accepts the concept of wave-particle duality in case of light and other electromagnetic radiation. The phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and polarization can only be explained when light is treated as a wave whereas the phenomena such as the photoelectric effect, line spectra, and the production and scattering of x rays demonstrate the particle nature of light. In this article, in order to show the particle nature of light, I have discussed the photoelectric effect along with the necessary equations.


The photoelectric effect is defined as a phenomenon in which the emission of electrons occurs when a beam of light strikes a metal or a cathode surface. For the emission of electrons to take place, the frequency of incident light is required to be greater than a certain minimum value. This value is known as the threshold frequency. The threshold frequency depends on the metal or material of the cathode. For most of the metals, threshold frequency is in the ultraviolet range (wavelengths between 200 nm to 300 nm). If the intensity of light (I) is increased while keeping the frequency same, more electrons are emitted per unit time. Thus, photocurrent is directly proportional to the intensity of light.


The photoelectric effect was correctly explained by the world-famous physicist, Albert Einstein, in the year 1905. It is interesting to know that Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1921 for his work on photoelectric effect. Einstein figured out that a beam of light comprises of small packages of energy known as photons or quanta. The energy of a photon (E) is equal to the product of the Planck’s constant (h) and the frequency of a photon (f). Frequency (f) of photon = speed of light (c)/wavelength of photon (λ).


The energy of a photon is given by –


E = hf = hc/λ


Planck’s constant (h) = 6.6260755(40) x 10-34

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Along the Rivers – The Gallery Forests

Along the Rivers – The Gallery Forests

In this research paper, I have explored the gallery forests by clarifying the concept behind the term “gallery forest”, and studying their biogeography by reviewing some important ecoregions of North America and South America. I have discussed some of the notable gallery forests found in the Americas with respect to their geography, flora, and fauna. It is hoped that this paper will serve the interests of biologists, ecologists, botanists, zoologists, arborists, forest ecologists, biogeologists, biogeographists, and all other people including professionals, students, and laymen eager to learn about the gallery forests.


A gallery forest is a narrow stretch or strip of forest along the banks of a water body, such as a river or stream, flowing through an otherwise open country. In the above context, an open country is defined as a region that is treeless or sparsely covered with trees. A gallery forest is also known as a fringing forest or riparian forest or riverine forest. Such forests are commonly found along the water bodies flowing through the savanna (or savannah) regions. The gallery forests are known to contain different types of woody vegetation. The width of a gallery forest may vary from several miles to complete absence along the same river.
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