Tag Archives: neurology

A Glance into the Human Brain

A Glance into the Human Brain – Structure and Functions of the Human Brain (Human Brain’s Anatomy and Physiology) – A Voyage Into the Human Brain!

This article describes the structure of human brain (anatomy of human brain) and functions of human brain (physiology of human brain), which is the most complex and mysterious organ of the human body. This article is expected to cater the needs of a variety of audiences including the students, teachers, healthcare professionals, and the laymen. The article has been written in an easy-to-understand language and richly annotated with definitions of difficult medical terms including etymologies.

The human brain is the most sophisticated organ of the human body, and can aptly be called as a biological marvel. The brain and the spinal cord constitute the central nervous system (CNS). The brain plays the role of the control tower or control center of the human body, and relies on a vast network of nerves (bundles of fibers of nervous tissue carrying impulses) spread throughout the body. Nerves can be compared to the electrical wiring as they carry electrical impulses.

Noteworthy Facts about the Human Brain!

  • The brain of human beings resembles a small cauliflower in its size and appearance.
  • Human brain is comprised of about 100 billion neurons or nerve cells.
  • The weight of an adult human brain is about 1300 g (about 3 pounds), whereas the weight of a newborn’s brain lies in the range of 350 – 400 g.
  • Although the brain of a human being accounts for only 2 % of the total body weight, it utilizes 20 % of the of the resting total body oxygen consumption.
  • Human brain contains 77 to 78 % water, 10 to 12 % lipids, 8 % proteins, 2 % soluble organic substances, 1 % carbohydrates, and 1 % inorganic salts.
  • The cerebral cortex forms 77% by volume of the human brain.
  • Cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain, whereas Cerebellum is the second largest.
  • Left side of the brain (left cerebral hemisphere) controls the right side of the body, whereas the right side of the brain (right cerebral hemisphere) controls the left side of the human body.

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Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) – A Landmark In Neuro-pharmacology

Updated on June 08, 2015

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) – A Landmark in Neuro-pharmacology!!

SSRIs - A Landmark in Neuro-pharmacology - adidarwinian

SSRIs – A Landmark in Neuro-pharmacology – adidarwinian

If a pharmacologist (a person who specializes in the study of the medicines, that is, Pharmacology) has to name one of the finest medical marvels in the history of Neuro-pharmacology (Neuro-pharmacology is the study of the medicines that affect the nervous system), then the development of the class of medicines known as the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) is certainly the correct and the most rational answer. These medicines have rejuvenated the whole realm of therapeutic intervention for the Psychiatric disorders or Psychiatric Diseases (Psychiatric diseases or disorders are the diseases causing some sort of disturbances in the brain of a person, and thus, resulting in changes in behavior, emotions, thought process, comprehension, and other mental faculties of the affected person).

It is now very clearly acknowledged by the psychiatric community that serotonin (a neurotransmitter) really exerts a major influence in maintaining the Homeostasis (equilibrium or stability) in the Neural Circuitry (the inter-network of the brain cells or neurons) of our brains. The Mechanism of Action (MOA) of SSRIsSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) rectify the disordered neuronal biochemistry by blocking the serotonin reuptake pump or serotonin transporter protein (SERT). This results in the selective inhibition of the reuptake of serotonin in the brain neurons, and hence, increases the amount of serotonin in the space (synaptic cleft) between the brain’s neurons.

Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Citalopram, Escitalopram, Paroxetine, and Sertraline are the medicines that belong to the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) class.

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs class of medicines has become the mainstay therapy for treating Depression, Anxiety Disorders such as the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or OCD. Their potential in treating Psychoses has also been implicated. (Psychoses is plural of Psychosis, which is defined as a mental disorder characterized by the symptoms, such as, delusions (false beliefs) or hallucinations (hearing or seeing things which are not actually there), that indicate loss of contact or impaired contact with the reality.)