Tag Archives: Heart Disease

Particulate Matter (PM) Air Pollution – A Serious Health Hazard

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a product of modern civilization and poses a serious health hazard to the mankind.

According to the WHO, ambient (outdoor) air pollution, in both cities and rural areas, caused about 4.2 million premature deaths worldwide in 2016; the cause of mortality was exposure to the fine particulate matter (PM2.5).

Particulate matter (PM)
is the term that refers to a mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air. PM10 refers to the particles having diameters of 10 micrometers (microns or µm) or lesser. PM10 is also known as coarse particulate matter (coarse PM). PM2.5 refers to the particles having diameters of 2.5 micrometers or lesser. PM2.5 is also known as fine particulate matter (fine PM). Particles having a diameter of less than 0.1 micrometer are known as ultrafine particles.

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Tips to Prepare for a Surgery

It is common for a person to worry about a variety of things when told by the doctor that a surgical procedure is required to treat the underlying medical condition. Whether the required surgery is major or minor, people usually get stressed-out and become fearful both about the surgical procedure and its consequences. Many people get scared even on thinking about the anesthesia given before the surgery. If it is the first time that you are about to be operated, then it is normal that you are much tensed up and are unable to carry out your normal routine in a relaxed manner. To face the surgery successfully, you have to acquaint yourself with the surgical procedure that you are going to have and prepare yourself both mentally and physically. Following are some helpful tips to prepare for a surgery that you can adopt before going under the knife –

Seek a Second Opinion – Is Surgery the Only Option?

If your physician or surgeon has advised a surgical procedure, then don’t hesitate to consult other physicians or surgeons before going under the knife. It might be that surgery is not required at all and your medical condition is treatable through medicines only. Also, there might be a simple surgical procedure available instead of the major surgery recommended by your surgeon. Moreover, you can also try various systems of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) like Homeopathy, Ayurveda, herbal medicine, etc. before finally deciding in favor of surgery.

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Seahorses in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

Seahorses are magnificent fishes that exhibit the phenomenon of male pregnancy. Pregnancy in males is unique to seahorses in the entire animal kingdom, thus, making them a true biological marvel. This exclusive behavior was discussed in detail in my research article titled “Seahorse – Male Endurance – Roles Swapped!!” Here, in this new research paper / article, I shall explore the use of seahorses in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

Seahorses are globally exploited for use as aquarium fishes, curios (articles or objects of curiosity), medicines, and even foods. Use of Seahorses in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was first mentioned in the book named “Bencao Shiyi” (Supplement to Materia Medica), written by Chen Cangqi around 720 A.D.

Seahorses are used in the treatment of a wide range of health problems under the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is a complementary and alternative system of medicine (CAM). You can refer to my article – “The Basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)” to learn the fundamentals of TCM. Seahorses are employed in the treatment of sexual weakness, reduced sexual desire or drive (reduced libido; libido means sexual desire or sex drive), and are considered as broad-spectrum or general tonics. The practitioners of TCM claim that seahorses strengthen “kidneys” and improve “nerves”, which in the context of Traditional Chinese Medicine points to general morale, well-being, and vigor. “kidneys” also imply sexual function in the context of TCM. Seahorses are categorized under sweet, salty, and warm medicines. They are usually not prescribed alone but in combo-preparations (formulations containing multiple ingredients) containing matter from other animals and plants.

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complications of high blood pressure or hypertension - adidarwinian

Complications of High Blood Pressure or Hypertension

This research article or paper focuses on the complications of Hypertension or High Blood Pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure involve a multitude of deadly diseases. The author of this paper has tried to emphasize on the mechanism of development of complications, i.e., how the complications develop due to Hypertension. Pathophysiology of Hypertension resulting in the development of complications is investigated.

Complications of High Blood Pressure or Hypertension

“High Blood Pressure or Hypertension is a Key to a Multitude of Deadly Diseases”

Rationally Coping with High Blood Pressure or Hypertension is the Choice of the Wise”

High Blood Pressure or Hypertension or HBP is a common medical condition. Usually, people suffering from this condition have no signs and symptoms until complications develop in the vital organs. So, if you have Hypertension, it will keep on damaging your organs without your knowledge. That’s why High Blood Pressure is aptly called as The Silent Killer. A person can have it for many years without knowing it. While a person may be unaware of his or her High Blood Pressure status, High Blood Pressure can damage his or her blood vessels, heart, kidneys, brain, eyes, and other organs of the body. Therefore, regularly getting your blood pressure checked is important, even if you are feeling healthy. If your blood pressure is already normal, then your health care professional or team can guide you how to maintain it. If a person’s blood pressure is high, treatment can help prevent damage to the organs.

complications of high blood pressure or hypertension - adidarwinian

High Blood Pressure or Hypertension or HBP when left untreated, over the time, can cause many complications as described below –

Damage to Heart and Arteries

High Blood Pressure or HBP or Hypertension places a higher workload on your heart and arteries, and can damage and block your arteries, can cause heart attack and heart failure. Arteries throughout the body get narrowed, which limits the blood flow, this can result in heart attack, kidney failure, stroke, amputation of part of leg, or loss of vision, and other problems.

  • Hypertension damages and blocks your arteries. If you have Hypertension, the force on your arteries is very high. This high force creates microscopic tears in the walls of your arteries. These microscopic damages form the scar tissues, which in turn, lead to formation of the Plaques (Atherosclerosis). Substances found in the blood such as fat, cholesterol, fibrin (a clotting material), calcium, etc., collectively form plaque. Plaques narrow and harden the arteries. The narrowing or thickening of arteries limits the supply of the oxygen-rich blood to the body organs. Hypertension also speeds up the narrowing and hardening of arteries which is a part of the natural process of aging. When your arteries get narrowed, you have a greater chance for the formation of Blood Clots. Blood clots can get carried away with your blood until they get stuck in narrow spaces. These stuck blood clots can significantly or totally block the blood supply to various parts of your body.
  •  As High Blood Pressure causes narrowing of arteries, blood supply to the heart muscle gets reduced. This can cause Angina (Chest Pain or Discomfort).
  •  Hypertension or High Blood Pressure can cause Heart Attack. Heart attack occurs as a result of blocked blood supply to the muscle tissue of the heart. Hypertension makes the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle (coronary arteries) thicker and harder as a result of formation of plaques (Coronary Heart Disease or CHD).  These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. High Blood Pressure makes arteries prone to blood clots. When a plaque or a blood clot or both completely blocks a coronary artery, the blood flow to the heart muscle fed by that artery stops and heart muscle begins to die.
  • The narrowed arteries interfere with blood’s ability to flow smoothly. This places a higher workload on your heart. Eventually, the heart thickens, becomes larger, and weaker. This can cause Heart Failure. Heart failure is a medical condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet your body’s requirements.


A Stroke occurs when an artery that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the brain gets blocked (Ischemic Stroke). Hypertension can cause such a blockage of arteries. Without oxygen and blood supply, brain cells starts dying within a few minutes. High Blood Pressure or Hypertension can also cause sudden bleeding in the brain (Hemorrhagic Stroke). The bleeding causes swelling and increased pressure in a person’s skull; this process damages brain cells.

Kidney Damage

High Blood Pressure causes arteries supplying blood to the kidneys to narrow and harden. When the arteries get narrowed, the nephrons (a nephron is a structural and functional unit of the kidney involved in the filtration of the wastes and excess fluids from the blood) do not get adequate amount of the blood and oxygen. This causes damage to them. When the blood vessels in the kidneys get damaged, they stop eliminating wastes and extra fluid from a person’s body. The extra fluid further raises the blood pressure, thus, a vicious circle starts. Hypertension is one of the main causes of Kidney Failure or End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).

Vision Loss

Hypertension can strain the blood vessels in the eyes, and the optic nerve. Hypertension can cause the blood vessels of eyes to either narrow or bleed due to too much blood pressure force. This may result in Vision Problems or Blindness. HBP or High Blood Pressure can also reduce the ability to see by causing swelling of the optic nerve. Optic nerve carries visual information from the retina of the eye to the brain. Disease or damage of the optic nerve can lead to Partial or Total Blindness. Hypertension can cause damage to the retina (Hypertensive Retinopathy). Hypertensive Retinopathy occurs as a result of damage to the blood vessels in the retina. Untreated High Blood Pressure can cause permanent vision problems or blindness.


Hypertension can lead to the formation of Aneurysms. An aneurysm is an abnormal (balloon-like) bulge in the wall of an artery. Arteries have thick walls to withstand normal blood pressure. The force of High Blood Pressure or Hypertension by pushing against the weakened or injured walls of the arteries can cause an aneurysm. An aneurysm can burst or rupture, and thereby, can cause severe bleeding inside the body. An aneurysm may undergo a dissection, which is defined as a split in one or more artery wall’s layers. The split results in bleeding into and along the layers of the artery wall. Both the rupture of aneurysm and dissection of aneurysm are often fatal.

Common spot for aneurysms is the aorta which is the main artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to all the body parts except the lungs. Many people die annually from Aortic Aneurysm. Most of the deaths occur from Aortic Aneurysm Rupture or Aortic Dissection (also known as Aortic Aneurysm – Dissecting). Aneurysms also can occur in other arteries though less commonly. For example aneurysm can occur in the artery leading to the spleen; and the arteries in the brain, intestines, and legs.

Erectile Dysfunction

High Blood Pressure or Hypertension can cause Erectile Dysfunction or ED or Impotence. Erectile Dysfunction or ED is the inability of a man to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. High Blood Pressure damages, hardens, and narrows the arteries carrying blood to the male sexual organ. This reduces blood flow and makes it difficult to achieve and sustain erection.


Dementia is a brain disease that involves impaired intellectual functioning, loss of ability to solve problems, inability to maintain emotional control, memory loss, and impairment of language skills. Dementia may involve personality changes and behavioral problems like agitation, delusions, and hallucinations. High Blood Pressure or Hypertension or HBP can cause Dementia by narrowing and blocking the arteries that supply blood to the brain

Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome is the name given to a group of risk factors that raises a person’s risk for developing Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Stroke. High Blood Pressure or Hypertension or HBP, being a metabolic risk factor, increases the risk for developing Diabetes and other health problems.