Musk Deer – Vanishing of the Exquisite Scent!

This paper discusses the threatened condition of musk deer with focus on taxonomy of musk deer, distribution of musk deer, production of musk, uses of musk both as a perfume and medicine, trade of musk, and conservation status of musk deer. The author of this paper aims to emphasize the exquisiteness of the musk secretion both as a perfume and medicine, and hence, the need to save the musk deer from getting extinct.


The musk deer is best acknowledged for its extraordinarily pleasant perfumed secretion known as the musk. This secretion ranks among the most valuable natural products in the world both for its fragrance and medicinal virtues, and has played the most important role in the decline of the population of musk deer on this planet. The rampant hunting of musk deer for international trade of musk products has resulted in the vanishing of the exquisite scent at an accelerated rate.


Taxonomy / Classification of Musk Deer

Musk deer are deer-like animals belonging to the family Moschidae of the order Artiodactyla under the class Mammalia. The following species of musk deer (genus Moschus) have been recognized, viz. –


Moschus moschiferus –
It is also known as Siberian musk deer or Taiga musk deer.

M. berezovskii – It is also known as Forest musk deer, Chinese Forest musk deer, South China Forest musk deer, or Dwarf musk deer.

M. chrysogaster – It is also known as Alpine musk deer.

M. leucogaster – It is also recognized by the name of Himalayan musk deer.

M. cupreus – It is also recognized by the name of Kashmir musk deer.

M. anhuiensis – Moschus anhuiensis is also known as Anhui musk deer.

M. fuscus – Moschus fuscus is also recognized by the name of Black musk deer or Dusky musk deer.


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Porifera – The Biology of Sponges

This article reveals the Biology of Sponges (phylum Porifera) by studying the Morphology, Anatomy, Histology, and Physiology of Sponges. The author has also included the Reproduction and Development of Sponges.


Porifera
is a phylum comprising of the multi-cellular invertebrate animals called Sponges. The term “Porifera” literally means “Pore Bearers”. The animals of this phylum have tiny pores in their body walls, and this characteristic feature is the basis of the name of this phylum.


Porifera includes very primitive multi-cellular animals having only the cellular level of body organization with no tissues and organs. In Porifera (sponges), only cells show division of labor for the purpose of performing specialized functions. All Poriferans, animals of the phylum Porifera, are aquatic with most of them being marine. Sponges are sessile (not mobile) organisms including both solitary and colony-forming types.

Sycon or Scypha adidarwinian

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